Letter to the Editor

Dr Madsen’s reply to Dr Fraile’s response

I stand by my original letter1 with the further explanation that the word "significant" has not passed the burden of proof anywhere as a part of resistance by human pathogens developing due to antibiotic use in swine. Semantics, perhaps, but the "new" citations (two-thirds are 12 years old) don't go to the question of establishing a link.


1. Madsen D. Antimicrobial resistance [Letter to the Editor]. J Swine Health Prod. 2009;17:75.

Dr Fraile was shown this letter and declined to comment.