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A Brief Introduction to Influenza A Virus in Swine

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family cause one of the most important respiratory diseases in pigs and humans. Repeated outbreaks and rapid spread of genetically and antigenically distinct IAVs represent a considerable challenge for animal production and public health. Bidirection transmission of IAV between pigs and people has altered the evolutionary dynamics of IAV, and a "One Health" approach is required to ameliorate morbidity and mortality in both hosts and improve control strategies. Although only subtypes of H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are endemic in swine around the world, considerable diversity can be found not only in the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes but in the remaining six genes as well. Human and swine IAVs have demonstrated a particular propensity for interspecies transmission, leading to regular and sometimes sustained incursions from man to pig and vice versa. The diversity of IAVs in swine remains a critical challenge in the diagnosis and control of this important pathogen for swine health and in turn contributes to a significant public health risk.

Vincent A, Anderson T, Lager K. A brief introduction to influenza A virus in swine. Methods Mol Biol. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0346-8_18