Effects of adjuvants on porcine circovirus type 2-associated lesions

Marlin J. Hoogland, DVM, MS; Tanja Opriessnig, Dr med vet; Patrick G. Halbur, DVM, PhD

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Objective: To determine if adjuvants differ in their ability to trigger lesions associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

Methods: Ninety pigs randomly assigned to five groups were vaccinated intramuscularly at 4 and 6 weeks of age with 2 mL of a commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M hyo) vaccine with oil-in-water adjuvant (Group 1), a commercial M hyo vaccine with an aqueous-carbopol adjuvant (Group 2), an experimentally produced M hyo vaccine with an oil-in-water adjuvant (Group 3), or an experimentally produced M hyo vaccine with an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Group 4), or were sham-vaccinated with saline (Group 5). All pigs were inoculated intranasally at 6 weeks of age with PCV2 (Day 0). Half of the pigs were necropsied at Day 21 and the remaining pigs at Day 35.

Results: No clinical disease was observed in any pigs during this study. At Day 21, lymphoid depletion was more severe in all M hyo-vaccinated pigs than in the saline-treated pigs (P < .05). At Day 35, greater amounts of PCV2 DNA were found in serum, more severe lymphoid lesions were observed, and more PCV2 antigen was detected in lymphoid tissues in Groups 1 and 3 (oil-in-water adjuvant) compared to Groups 2, 4, and 5 (P < .05).

Implications: Under the conditions of this study, oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccines are more likely to enhance PCV2-associated lesions than aqueous-carbopol or aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines. Practitioners must weigh benefits and efficacy of vaccines intended to control coinfections against the potential negative effect certain vaccines may have on PCV2 replication.

Keywords: immunostimulation, porcine circovirus type 2, adjuvants, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, PCV2, PMWS

RIS citationCite as: Hoogland MJ, Opriessnig T, Halbur PG. Effects of adjuvants on porcine circovirus type 2-associated lesions. J Swine Health Prod 2006;14(3):133-139.

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