Homogeneity and stability in drinking water of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs labelled for swine in Europe
Irene MayÃ³s, PhD; Jaume Bosch, DVM; Emili Fadurdo, BS; Josep Homedes, DVM, PhD
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Objectives: To verify the stability and homogeneity in drinking water of five nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) labeled for pigs in Europe, including oral solutions of ketoprofen (300 mg per mL) and paracetamol (200 mg per mL) and soluble powders of sodium salicylate 100%, paracetamol (200 mg per g), and acetylsalicylic acid 100%, under field conditions.
Materials and methods: A solution of each product was prepared according to label instructions in a 300-L farm tank, without stirring. Active ingredient concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography on three samples collected at three standard depths in the tank (high, medium, and low) at 5 minutes, 12 hours, and 24 hours post mixing.
Results: No time-related statistically significant differences were observed in active-principle concentrations. However, significant differences were detected at different sampling depths for sodium salicylate and paracetamol powder and solution. Some variability was observed for acetylsalicylic acid, but differences were not statistically significant. Concentrations obtained at all time points and sampling depths for ketoprofen approached calculated values, indicating better homogeneity and stability in drinking water.
Implications: When NSAIDs in drinking-water tanks are used to treat farm animals, variability in dose may occur if the water is not adequately stirred after product addition. Lack of homogeneity may produce overdose or underdose, thereby increasing the risk of adverse events and violative residues in the carcasses or the possibility of lack of efficacy, respectively. This situation is more evident when the added product is a soluble powder rather than a solution.
Keywords: ketoprofen, paracetamol, salicylic acid, drinking water treatment, water
Cite as: MayÃ³s I, Bosch J, Fadurdo E, et al. Homogeneity and stability in drinking water of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs labelled for swine in Europe. J Swine Health Prod 2012;20(6):270-275.
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