A field and laboratory investigation of viral diseases of swine in the Republic of Haiti
Rodney Jacques-Simon, DVM; Max Millien, DVM; J. Keith Flanagan, DVM; John Shaw, PhD; Paula Morales, MS; Julio Pinto, DVM, PhD; David Pyburn, DVM; Wendy Gonzalez, DVM; Angel Ventura, DVM; Thierry Lefrancois, DVM, PhD; Jennifer Pradel, DVM, MS, PhD; Sabrina Swenson, DVM, PhD; Melinda Jenkins-Moore; Dawn Toms; Matthew Erdman, DVM, PhD; Linda Cox, MS; Alexa J. Bracht; Andrew Fabian; Fawzi M. Mohamed, BVSc, MS, PhD; Karen Moran; Emily O’Hearn; Consuelo Carrillo, DVM, PhD; Gregory Mayr, PhD; William White, BVSc, MPH; Samia Metwally, DVM, PhD; Michael T. McIntosh, PhD; Mingyi Deng, DVM, MS, PhD
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Objective: To confirm the prevalence of teschovirus encephalomyelitis in multiple regions in Haiti and to identify other viral agents present in the swine population.
Materials and methods: A field investigation was conducted on 35 swine premises located in 10 regions. Sera from 109 pigs, including 23 sick and 86 apparently healthy pigs, blood samples from 21 sick pigs, and brains, spinal cords, and other tissue samples from eight humanely euthanized pigs were collected and tested.
Results: Of the 109 serum samples, 49.5% and 58.7% were positive for antibodies to porcine teschovirus type 1 (PTV-1) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), respectively. Additionally, 7.3%, 11.9%, and 22.0% of sera were positive for antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV) H3N2 and H1N1, respectively. Among the 54 sera positive for antibodies to PTV-1, 35 (64.8%) were also positive for antibodies to PCV-2. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) was isolated from five sera. These results confirm that teschovirus encephalomyelitis is prevalent in multiple regions in Haiti, including areas near the border with the Dominican Republic, and that several other viral disease agents, ie, CSFV, PCV-2, PRRSV, and SIV, are present in the Haitian swine population.
Implications: Due to the close proximity of the Hispaniola to Puerto Rico, a territory of the United States, and the large number of direct flights from the Hispaniola to the United States, the risk of introducing the viral diseases mentioned in this paper into the North America swine population is high.
Keywords: viral disease, porcine teschovirus, teschovirus encephalomyelitis, Haiti
Cite as: Jacques-Simon R, Millien M, Flanagan JK, et al. A field and laboratory investigation of viral diseases of swine in the Republic of Haiti. J Swine Health Prod 2013;21(3):130-138.
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