Survey of serum vitamin D status across stages of swine production and evaluation of supplemental bulk vitamin D premixes used in swine diets
Jessica Arnold, DVM; Darin M. Madson, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP; Steve M. Ensley, DVM, PhD; Jesse P. Goff, DVM, PhD; Chris Sparks, PhD; Greg W. Stevenson, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP; Thomas Crenshaw, MS, PhD; Chong Wang, PhD; Ronald L. Horst, PhD
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The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in pigs of different age groups, to determine if 25(OH)D concentrations varied with season, and to assess the quality of vitamin D supplements used in swine diets from multiple commercial suppliers. Serum samples (n = 1200) submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for routine surveillance were assayed for serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D premix samples were obtained from suppliers and analyzed at two laboratories over a 9-month period. In all age categories, 25(OH)D concentrations in numerous serum samples were lower than reference values. In the nursery, finisher, and boar age categories, there was a difference between the months of January and June (P < .05), with June samples containing higher quantities of circulating 25(OH)D. Serum samples from outdoor herds had higher 25(OH)D concentrations than samples from confined pigs (P < .01). Among the supplement samples evaluated, no individual supplement had a concentration of 25(OH)D significantly lower than 500,000 IU per g. These results revealed that commercial swine may be deficient in serum vitamin D at varying times of the year, and feed-supplement concentrations may vary.
Keywords: vitamin D, serum, feed
Cite as: Arnold J, Madson DM, Ensley SM, et al. Survey of serum vitamin D status across stages of swine production and evaluation of supplemental bulk vitamin D premixes used in swine diets. J Swine Health Prod 2015;23(1):28-34.
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