A survey of current feeding regimens for vitamins and trace minerals in the US swine industry
Josh R. Flohr, PhD; Joel M. DeRouchey, PhD; Jason C. Woodworth, PhD; Mike D. Tokach, PhD; Robert D. Goodband, PhD; Steve S. Dritz, DVM, PhD
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Objective: To describe added vitamin and trace-mineral concentrations used in the US swine industry for breeding and growing pigs.
Materials and methods: A convenience sample survey of nutritionists from 18 US swine production systems representing approximately 2.3 million sows or 40% of the US sow herd was conducted to characterize added vitamin and trace-mineral concentrations in swine diets. Data were compiled by dietary phases to determine descriptive statistics. Nutrients evaluated were vitamins A, D, E, and K; biotin; choline; folic acid; niacin; pantothenic acid; pyridoxine; riboflavin; thiamin; vitamin B12; betaine; vitamin C; carnitine; copper; iodine; iron; manganese; selenium; zinc; cobalt; and chromium. Questions about supplementation of vitamin D from a cross-linked vitamin AD3 beadlet, potential use of natural (d-alpha-tocopherol) vitamin E as a source of vitamin E, and the use of chelated trace minerals were included.
Results: Results indicated variation, but most vitamins and trace minerals were included at concentrations above the total dietary requirement estimates reported by the National Research Council (2012). Chelated sources for partial or complete supplementation of copper, manganese, or zinc ranged from none to 46% and none to 77% for chelated selenium across diet type. The chelated sources were more prevalent in breeding-herd and nursery-pig diets.
Implications: Adding a margin of safety for vitamin and trace-mineral supplementation appears to be standard practice in US swine diets. This survey provides a baseline for supplementation rates of the vitamins and trace minerals used in the US swine industry.
Keywords: trace minerals, vitamins, swine industry, survey
Cite as: Flohr JR, DeRouchey JM, Woodworth JC, et al. A survey of current feeding regimens for vitamins and trace minerals in the US swine industry. J Swine Health Prod 2016;24(6):290-303.
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