Depletion of bromadiolone in tissues of hogs following oral exposure
Saad Enouri, MSc, PhD; Kristina Dekroon, BSc; Robert Friendship, DVM, MSc, Diplomate ABVP; Nick Schrier, MSc; Patricia M. Dowling, MSc, Diplomate ACVIM (LAIM), Diplomate ACVCP; Ron Johnson, PhD, Diplomate ACVCP
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Objectives: To assess bromadiolone depletion in the edible tissues of swine and propose post-exposure withdrawal periods.
Materials and methods: Two groups of barrows and two groups of gilts were given a single oral dose of bromadiolone: low dosage (LD, 0.05 mg/kg; n = 20; 10 males, 10 females) and high dose (HD, 0.5 mg/kg; n = 20; 10 males, 10 females). Coagulation parameters were assessed before and after administration. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 weeks (LD) and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 weeks (HD) post dosing. Loin muscle, skin-adherent fat, liver, feces, and blood were analyzed for bromadiolone using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Results: Partial thromboplastin times exceeded control values in the LD and HD groups 6 and 9 weeks post dosing, respectively. In the HD group, bromadiolone concentrations exceeded the limit of detection (LOD) at all time points in liver and skin-adherent fat and for up to 6 weeks in feces, muscle, and plasma. In the LD group, bromadiolone concentrations exceeded the LOD at all time points in liver and up to 3 weeks in fat, feces, and plasma. Estimated withdrawal periods for bromadiolone in liver were 83 and 176 weeks in the LD and HD groups, respectively, and 62 weeks in muscle in the HD group.
Implication: Bromadiolone residues persist in tissues such that it is impractical to wait for the hog to eliminate the rodenticide to a concentration that is safe for entry into the human food chain.
Keywords: rodenticides, bromadiolone detection, withdrawal period, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Cite as: Enouri S, Dekroon K, Friendship R, et al. Depletion of bromadiolone in tissues of hogs following oral exposure. J Swine Health Prod 2015;23(6):298-305.
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