Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv)
WHAT'S NEW THIS WEEK? -- Click this link for a quick look at the most site updates.
Reminder: Effective December 15, 2014, USDA no longer reimburses SECD samples submitted without a Premises Identification Number included on the submission form. Click here for the full story.
Revised Federal Order -- Effective January 4, 2016, USDA has modified the SECD Federal Order enacted on June 5, 2014. APHIS has reprioritized its needs going forward and will focus all remaining SECD funds towards diagnostic testing. The revised Federal Order will also eliminate the herd plan requirement, as well as reimbursement to veterinarians for completing those plans. And, it will also eliminate reimbursement for biosecurity actions, like truck washing. All reimbursable activities completed prior to January 4th will remain eligible for reimbursement. All invoices for reimbursable activities completed should be submitted within 30 days of completion of the activity. SECD remains a reportable disease, which means that producers, veterinarians, and diagnostic laboratories are required to report all cases of SECD to USDA or State animal health officials. The reporting criteria are unchanged in the updated Federal Order.
Federal Order -- USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack issued a Federal Order on June 5, 2014 requiring the reporting of swine enteric coronavirus diseases including PED and PDCoV. This is a link to the actual Federal Order. Additional information is available on the USDA's web site at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal-health/secd
Herd Management Plan -- The Federal Order requires that operations reporting these viruses must work with a veterinarian – either their herd veterinarian, or USDA or State animal health officials – to develop and implement a reasonable management plan to address the detected virus and prevent its spread. This is a link to a USDA-approved checklist defining the issues that must be addressed in the plan according to the Federal Order. Submission of this checklist is all that is necessary to comply with the Federal Order.
Herd Plan Flow Chart -- Unsure whether or not you need to write a herd plan? This flow chart will walk you through the decision-making process.
Veterinary reimbursement -- Practitioners can receive reimbursement from USDA for each herd plan they write. To be eligible, you must complete both the Fee Basis Agreement and Electronic Funds Transfer form. The veterinarian then submits a monthly invoice to the ADD in the state in which the herd is located. Each premises must be itemized on the invoice and include the Premises Identification Number (PIN) in order to be processed.
SECD Case Definition -- This is a link to the USDA-approved case definition for a swine enteric coronavirus disease that would be subject to reporting under the requirements of the Federal Order.
Interstate Movement Regulations -- This spreadsheet highlights the animal movement regulations implemented by some states relative to PED exposure. We will attempt to keep this up-to-date but always verify the requirements with the state of destination prior to shipping pigs. [Last updated: 5/7/14]
Evaluation of biosecurity measures to prevent indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus -- Kim, et al undertook this study to evaluate the effectiveness of biosecurity procedures directed at minimizing transmission via personnel following different biosecurity protocols using a controlled experimental setting.
Modeling the Transboundary Risk of Feed Ingredients Contaminated with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus -- Dee, et al describe a model developed to evaluate the transboundary risk of PEDV-contaminated swine feed ingredients and the effect of two mitigation strategies during a simulated transport event from China to the US.
Third PEDV Strain Identified -- Three naturally occurring US PEDV strains have been identified: the original PEDV, the PEDV with changes in the spike gene (INDEL), and the PEDV strain (S2aa-del) reported in this article. The role of genetic changes in the US PEDV strains to clinical disease has yet to be reported. The clinical presentation of diarrhea in this case was reported as equally or more severe than such presentation in cases caused by the prototype PEDV Colorado/2013. Other factors such as concurrent infections and the rate of group exposure, which is rapid in most PEDV cases affecting neonatal piglets, may influence the clinical presentation. 12/2014
Sal CURB Evaluation -- A study evaluating the use of the antimicrobial feed additive Sal CURB for PED virus control found that the product is effective under trial conditions. Read the complete study online: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/10/220
PEDv Airborne Spread -- This study assessed whether PEDV could become airborne and if so, whether the virus was infectious. Results indicated presence of infectious PEDV in the air from experimentally infected pigs and genetic material of PEDV was detected up to 10 miles downwind from naturally infected farms. Airborne transmission should be considered as a potential route for PEDV dissemination. 8/21/2014
PEDv in feed -- This research project conducted by Dr. Scott Dee et al explores the concept of transmitting viable PED virus via feed. Conclusions: These data provide proof of concept that contaminated complete feed can serve as a vehicle for PEDV infection of naïve pigs using natural feeding behavior. 08/12/2014
Research Updates -- Links to PED research funded by the National Pork Board.
PEDv Origin -- Study published by Virginia Tech researchers attempting to identify the origin of the PED virus currently circulating in the U.S. swine herd. The results of the study indicate the virus likely originated in China's Anhui Province.
Inactivation Study: Time vs Temperature -- ISU study evaluating the time and temperature sufficient to inactivate porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in swine feces on metal surfaces. Results of the study reported at the 2014 IPVS.
Woo, J of Virology, 2012 -- Study examining the Deltacoronaviruses.
Biosecurity suggestions -- Describes what to consider when evaluating mechanisms to prevent virus introduction.
Infective Material, Concepts and Procedures for Intentional Sow Herd Exposure to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus -- The authors describe a field-based strategy to enhance sow herd immunity to PEDv in herds suffering a recent outbreak. (Provided to AASV 12/24/2013 by the authors: Drs Schwartz, Henry, Tokach, Potter, Davidson and Egnor)
Number of New Cases Reported --Weekly aggregate update of new cases. For the week ending 5/13/17, the report indicates there were 65 positive accessions from the 634 submissions (10.3% positive). There are 39 states confirming at least one case of PED since the beginning of the outbreak in 2013. The report also includes information on cases submitted for porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) as well. USDA maintains all historic data on their SECD website at www.aphis.usda.gov/animal-health/secd. Note that USDA has added two new tables (Tables 2 & 3) to the report. These tables are designed to make it easier for the reader to monitor newly reported case each week by state and production class. Last updated: 5/19/17. [Cumulative graph]
Cumulative Cases Reported -- Cumulative totals of all confirmed cases by Farm Type, Age and State. Last updated: 6/26/2013.
UMN Case Report -- update of new cases submitted to the UMN VDL only. Data current through 6/7/2013.
Web-Based Report: Disease BioPortal® - Trends in US PEDV & PDCoV -- Time and space sensitive graphics depicting national and state level trends in case level PEDV and PDCoV PCR test results observed in case submissions made to VDLs and reported to the USDA. These dynamic graphs and maps depict the trends of PEDV and PDCoV aggregate diagnostic case-level data (state and national) observed over time and space, and, while likely correlated, do not specifically reflect the actual number of premises or farm sites affected. Diagnostic trends occurring within each state are visible by accessing (right-clicking) the time-sensitive charts nested within the maps included in the dashboard. Please note that the data in the graphs are from biological samples only, no environmental or feed samples are included in the data. [Note: Viewing this training video is very highly recommended for first-time users. This 3-minute video will provide the training necessary to proficiently navigate this web-based/dynamic reporting tool.] Access link (and/or Bookmark) via Google-Chrome (Preferred) or latest versions of Mozilla Firefox or Safari web-browsers. Internet Explorer or older versions of Mozilla Firefox web-browsers will not work.
PED Case Report in a Sow Herd -- Describes the disease progression in a sow herd.
PED News -- News service globally developed and maintained by the Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance at the University of California in Davis using funds provided by Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. focusing on PED. Subscription service sends news articles directly to your email address. Frequency of delivery is user defined.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea in Canada: An emerging disease case study -- Dr. Harpreet S. Kochhar, Chief Veterinary Officer, provides a synopsis of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus outbreak and response in Canada.
Pork Checkoff PEDv Update -- Weekly update by National Pork Board on PEDv issues.
Update on PED Detection in U.S. -- Members-only update on the latest information concerning the recent detection of PED in the U.S. swine herd.
LABORATORY SUBMISSION GUIDELINES
ISU-VDL PED Submission Guidelines -- Guidelines for sample submission to the ISU-VDL for PED testing.
KSU Diagnostic Lab --
Producers are encouraged to work with their veterinarians, who can send samples to KSVDL, 1800 Denison Ave., Manhattan, KS 66506. These samples should be shipped in the same manner as all other diagnostic specimens while being diligent about adequate biosecurity and disinfection, which is imperative to prevent spread of this virus. For questions, contact the laboratory at (866) 512-5650 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
SDSU PED Submission Guidelines -- South Dakota State University’s Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL) has developed a PCR test for Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) and encourages veterinarians to submit samples from suspect herds.
University of Nebraska-Lincoln -- Link to PEDv sample submission guidelines from the UNL Veterinary Diagnostic Center.
AASV Quick Facts -- Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea -- One page overview of the disease including a list of references and links to other pertinent publications.
KSU Fact Sheet -- General information about the PED virus.
Alternatives to Reduce PEDV Contamination in Feed Ingredients -- This paper discusses possible technologies that could be applied to feed to reduce PEDv contamination.
PED White Paper -- This is a comprehensive document on PED virus authored by Drs. Jerome Geiger and Joe Connor. It includes an in-depth description of a method to eliminate the virus from a swine herd.
USDA Technical Notes -- USDA publication discussing PED virus and provides an outline of U.S. swine industry. Includes a significant list of references.
AASV EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEY
Survey Form -- Epidemiologic survey compiled in collaboration with NPB, NPPC, and USDA to determine how PED virus was introduced into the U.S. swine herd.
Peliminary Study Results -- An abbreviated report based on the preliminary findings from USDA's Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health.
Interpretation of Survey Results -- This document explains our interpretation of the PEDv survey results. Due to the small sample size and potential bias, this survey must not be over-interpreted. The results merely offer potential direction for additional investigation and do not implicate any specific sources of viral introduction.
AASV PED Webinar -- View the AASV PED webinar held May 23. Speakers include Drs. Greg Stevenson and Joe Connor and is moderated by Dr. Scanlon Daniels.
Disease timeline -- Drs. Matt Ackerman and Amber Stricker provide some insight into a typical timeline for PED infections in sow herds, nurseries and grow-finish. (Members-only access)
Feed sampling protocol -- Recommendations from KSU on the aseptic collection and submission of feed samples of for PEDv diagnostics.
UMN PED Webpage -- Web page on PED developed by the UMN-CVM.
Swine Health Monitoring Project -- This project, undertaken by the University of Minnesota Swine Disease Eradication Center in collaboration with AASV and NPB, is designed to work with a number of individual producers and practitioners to monitor disease expression within the U.S. swine herd. At the present time the project is concentrating on PEDv but the ultimate goal is to broaden the scope to encompass diseases of interest to the swine industry.
Disinfectant 101 -- This document provides a general overview of disinfectant information regarding proper selection, application, mixing, reading a label, and effectiveness against various disease causing organisms. (ISU Center for Food Security and Public Health)
Characteristics of Selected Disinfectants -- This one page handout reviews the various types of disinfectant classes available and lists common trade names, how they work, advantages, disadvantages, and what type of organisms they are effective against. (ISU Center for Food Security and Public Health)
Buying Station Biosecurity Survey -- Dr. Matthew Turner conducted a biosecurity survey of 4 cull buying stations in North Carolina following the first diagnosis of PEDv in the state's swine herd. He provides the survey, responses and some suggestions for buying station biosecurity.
Harvest Plant Contamination Study -- Dr. Jim Lowe conducted a study to assess the risk that collection points like harvest plants play in promoting the initial outbreak of a novel disease organism by estimating the rate of contamination of trailers with PEDV during the unloading process. His preliminary findings are summarized in this report.
Market Swine Biosecurity -- A list of proposed recommendations developed during a meeting of pork processors on August 2, 2013. These recommendations will be utilized by the three biosecurity working groups to develop more definitive recommendations and materials for biosecurity as we move forward.
Sow Packer and Buying Station Biosecurity -- A list of proposed recommendations developed during a meeting of sow packer and buying station representatives held at the National Pork Board on August 13, 2013. These recommendations will be utilized by the three biosecurity working groups to develop more definitive recommendations and materials for biosecurity as we move forward.
Indiana Packers Livestock Transporter Biosecurity Protocol -- Guidelines developed and implement effective Sept. 30, 2013 designed to minimize the likelihood of disease transmission occurring at the company's processing facility.
PADRAP Analysis of Transport Risk -- An evaluation of PADRAP data referencing the risks of disease spread via transport issues.
Entering and Exiting -- This video illustrates a biosecure method to enter and exit a truck and trailer using 3 pairs of disposable boots. (No audio) Thanks to Dr. Joe Connor for providing this video.
Entering Trailer with Washable boots -- This video illustrates a biosecure procedure for entering a trailer using 1 pair of washable boots. Thanks to Dr. Paul Yeske for providing this video.
Exiting Trailer with Washable Boots -- This video illustrates a biosecure procedure for exiting a trailer using 1 pair of washable boots. Thanks to Dr. Paul Yeske for providing this video.
The PEDv Biosecurity Working Group has developed the following three publications addressing biosecurity associated with manure transportation and application.
Commercial Manure Haulers -- This document provides guidelines designed to minimize the risk of spreading PEDv when utilizing commercial manure haulers.
Biosecure Manure Pumping Protocols -- This document provides guidelines for pork producers regarding the risks associated with manure handling.
Landowners Manure Application -- This is an educational outreach to landowners to raise awareness of the risks associated with manure application.
Recommendations for Exhibit Organizers -- This document outlines a series of recommendations targeting event organizers designed to minimize the risk of disease spread during swine exhibitions.
Recommendations for Swine Exhibitors -- This document from the National Pork Board describes things swine exhbitors can do to help lower the risk of spreading diseases to naive animals during and after swine exhibitions.